Lua C Api File Descriptor

Have a look at the C function fdopen. It takes a file descriptor and gives you back a stream/FILE. If you implement a Lua C extension for fdopen to give you back a LuaStream then you can use the normal Lua io calls on the resulting Lua Stream. Better than just implementing a one-off function for what you want to do. C mtev.cancelcoro mtev.cancelcoro mtev.chmod. Change the mode of a file. Rv = mtev.chmod(file, mode) file the path to a target file. A new file mode. RETURN rv is the return as documented by the chmod libc call. Close a file descripto. Mtev.close(fd) fd the integer file descriptor to close. Mtev.cluster cluster = mtev.cluster(name). This is the reference manual of MoonVulkan, which is a Lua binding library for the Khronos Vulkan API. 1 It is assumed that the reader is familiar with both Vulkan and the Lua programming language. For convenience of reference, this document contains external (deep) links to the Lua Reference Manual and the Vulkan API Reference Pages. A file can be deleted atomically using leatomFileDelete api. For opening C standard file stream, please see Streams section. Writing on the file descriptors obtained by this API same as writing to regular file descriptor. That means, any write to a file descriptor using this API doesn't ensure that data is transferred to disk.

Ngx lua function to allow waiting for a file descriptor to be ready - ngxhttpluacqueues.c.

-- Save to: $CONFIGDIR/lua/extensions/nowplaying.lua
return {
title ='Now playing',
version ='1.0',
author ='Richard Andrew Cattermole',
url ='',
shortdesc ='Saves to file the currently playing song',
description ='Saves the currently playing song name and artist to ~/now_playing.txt',
capabilities = {'input-listener', 'meta-listener', 'playing-listener'}
-- this is where extension starts
-- for example activation of extension opens custom dialog box:
vlc.msg.dbg('[Now Playing] Activating')
-- what should be done on deactivation of extension
vlc.msg.dbg('[Now Playing] Deactivating')
-- related to capabilities={'input-listener'} in descriptor()
-- triggered by Start/Stop media input event
-- related to capabilities={'playing-listener'} in descriptor()
-- triggered by Pause/Play madia input event
-- related to capabilities={'meta-listener'} in descriptor()
-- triggered by available media input meta data?
item=vlc.itemor vlc.input.item()
local theFile=vlc.config.homedir() .'/now_playing.txt', 'w+')
ifnot (item nil) and vlc.input.is_playing() then
local text=title .' - '. artist
vlc.msg.dbg('[Now Playing] '. text)
vlc.msg.dbg('[Now Playing] no input item playing')
file:write('No song currently playing')
local find = string.find
local sub = string.sub
local _,i1 =find(s,'^%s*')
local i2 =find(s,'%s*$')
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Does OpenResty follow NGINX's mainline releases?

Yes, sure. OpenResty is currently employing a 'tick-tock' release model. Each 'tock' release (usually) upgrades the bundled NGINX core to the latestmainline release from the official NGINX team, followed by one ore more 'tick' releases focusing on OpenResty's own features and enhancements withoutupgrading the NGINX core. /contraband-police-apk-download-for-android/.

The first part of the OpenResty release version numbers is the version of the bundled NGINX core. For instance, OpenResty bundlesNGINX 1.7.10 while OpenResty bundles NGINX 1.9.1.

How often does OpenResty make a new release?

We are trying to make a new release of OpenResty every couple of months. It may sometimes take longer because this project is mainly based on volunteers.

How should I report a problem?

Whenever you run into a problem, you are encouraged to report to the openresty-en (English) mailing list or the openresty (Chinese)mailing list (depending on your language). See the Community pagefor more details. But please don't cross-post.

You are highly recommended to provide as much details as possible while reporting a problem, for example,

Lua C Api File Descriptor

  • anything interesting in your Nginx's error log file (logs/error.log), if any,
  • the exact versions of the related software you're using, including but not limited to the type/version of youroperating system, the version of your OpenResty (or the versions of your Nginx, ngx_lua,Lua/LuaJIT and other modules used if you are not using the OpenResty bundle),
  • a minimal and standalone example that can reliably reproduce the issue on our side, and
  • enable the Nginx/OpenResty's debugging logs andprovide the complete logs for the guilty request you performed (the same ./configure --with-debug command line also applies perfectly well to the OpenResty bundle).

The more details you provide, the more likely and faster we can help you out. Most of the time,you will find your own mistakes while minimizing your problematic example or looking at yourNginx error log files.

If you are absolutely certain that you have run into a real bug, then you are encouraged tofile a ticket in the corresponding project's GitHub Issues page. For example, the GitHub Issues page forthe ngx_lua component is The GitHub issues pages for OpenResty's componentsare all considered English-only. Never use other languages like Chinese there. It is still fine, however, to just send a mail to one of the mailing lists mentioned above; but again, please do not cross-post.

Why can't I use Lua 5.2 or later?

Lua 5.2+ are incompatible with Lua 5.1 on both the C API land andthe Lua land (including various language semantics). If as you said there are quitea few people already using ngx_lua + Lua 5.1, then linking against Lua 5.2+ willprobably break these people's existing Lua code. Lua 5.2+ are essentially incompatible different languages.

Supporting Lua 5.2+ requires nontrivial architectural changes in ngx_lua's basic infrastructure.The most troublesome thing is the quite different 'environments' model in Lua 5.2+.At this point, we would hold back adding support for Lua 5.2+ to ngx_lua. Also, we do not want tocreate confusions and incompatibilities on the Lua land for applications running atop ngx_lua, as wellas all the existing lua-resty-* libraries written in the Lua 5.1 language.

We believe it is better to stick with one Lua language in ngx_lua. Chasing the Lua language's versionnumber has not many practical technical merits (if there were some political ones).

Can I use LuaJIT 2.0.x?

Yes sure. LuaJIT 2.0.x is always supported in OpenResty though LuaJIT 2.1+ is highly recommended.

Why does OpenResty use LuaJIT 2.1 by default?

As of this writing, LuaJIT 2.1 is still officially 'beta' but OpenResty is using LuaJIT 2.1 by defaultand encourages use of it in production because

  1. We always run the latest LuaJIT v2.1 in various large-scale server-side business software infrastructures.
  2. All the recent performance improvements Cloudflare Inc. hassponsored only land in v2.1.
  3. For one of our typical Lua apps at the level of 10K+ LOC, LuaJITv2.1 gives over 100% over-all speedup as compared to LuaJIT 2.0.x(when lua-resty-core is used).
  4. Many important bug fixes in the v2.1 branch have been back portedto 2.0.x series because these bugs were also in 2.0.x (just hidden forlong). The 2.0.3 release is such a proof.

We highly recommend LuaJIT 2.1 because we really need speed in OpenResty though you always have the freedomto use LuaJIT 2.0.x or even the standard Lua 5.1 interpreter in OpenResty instead.

Why can't I use duplicate configuration directives?

Most of the ngx_lua module's configuration directives do not allow duplication in the same context.For example, the following nginx.conf snippet

will yield the following error while starting nginx:

People may want to use duplicate directives to split complicated Lua code base into multipleseparate .lua files. This is not allowed and it must be inefficient even if it were to be implemented in ngx_lua.

The recommended way to organize your Lua code base is to use Lua's own module mechanism:

You can put your unrelated Lua code into separate Lua module files, for example,

And finally, just require them in the entry point like this:

You will need to add the path of your Lua modules to Lua's module search paths, for instance,

in the http {} block in your nginx.conf.

You can take a look at OpenResty's standard Lua libraries for real-world examples, like openresty/lua-resty-redis.

Use of Lua's native module mechanism is also very efficient. Thanks to the built-in caching mechanismin Lua's built-in function require() (via the global package.loaded table anchored in the Lua registry, thus being sharedby the whole Lua VM).

Can I use custom loggers in Lua?

Yes, sure. You have multiple options:


Lua C Api File Descriptors

  1. Write a custom Lua logger library manipulating files with LuaJIT FFI directly. You need to access the low level file I/Osyscalls like open, write, and close without going through libc's buffered I/O layer. This is important becausethis can ensure atomicity when multiple (worker) processes are appending data to the same file (in the appending mode).You can share the resulting file descriptors (fd) returned from the open syscall on the NGINX worker process levelby the this technique.Maybe someday OpenResty will ship with a standard lua-resty-logger-file library; you are welcome to contributesuch a library :)
  2. Avoid file I/O in the nginx server altogether by employing the lua-resty-logger-socket library.This library can send your log data to the remote endpoint (like a syslog-ng server) via sockets and 100% nonblockingI/O. Cloudflare, for example, has been using this library heavily across its global network.Unlike NGINX core's native syslog loggers, this one tries very hard to avoid data loss in erroneous conditions.

Socket-based logging is generally recommended for performance reasons because file I/O may almost always blockthe NGINX event loop (or some OS threads if enabling the new NGINX thread pool support for file I/O, still adding extra overhead).

Why am I seeing the 'lua tcp socket connect timed out' error?

The error happens when the connect operation to the backend times out. The backend can be Redis, Memcached, MySQL, or any other thing you arecurrently using. This error log message is generated by thengx_lua module's automatic error loggerfor cosockets. If you already handle all the cosocket errors properly in your own Lua code,then you can suppress the automatic logger by turning off the lua_socket_log_errors in your ngnx.conf:

The cause of the connect timeout errors can be complicated but generally falls into the following categories:

  1. your redis server is too busy to accept new connections and the redis server's TCP stackis dropping packets when the accept() queue is full, or
  2. your nginx server is too busy to respond to new I/O events (like doing CPU intensivecomputations or blocking on system calls),
  3. your timeout threshold on the client side is too small to account for the latency over the wire and the network stack.

You can try the following to address the issue:

Lua C Api File Descriptor Error 0x800

  1. Scale your backend to multiple nodes so as to utilize more (CPU) resources (for example, the redis server is single-threadedand can easily exhaust a single CPU core).
  2. Increase the backlog setting in your backend server (for example, there is a tcp-backlogparameter to tune in the redis.conf configuration file); the backlog setting determines the length limitof your accept() queue on your backend server.
  3. Check whether your nginx server is too busy doing CPU intensive work or blocking syscalls(like disk I/O syscalls) by using the flame graph tools,
  4. Increase the timeout threshold in your Lua code if it makes sense,
  5. Automatically retry connect() in your Lua code for one or two more time with an optional delaywhen your connect() call fails.

Why am I always getting 0 from getreusedtimes() or get_reused_times() calls?

This usually means that you fail to put your backend connections into the connection poolin the first place and the connection pool is always empty so that connect() calls alwaysestablish new connections instead of reusing existing ones.

The solution is to always check the return values of the setkeepalive() or set_keepalive()calls and handle errors properly if any. When you get errors from setkeepalive() or set_keepalive() calls, thenwe can work on solving the problem (like avoid calling setkeepalive() or set_keepalive() at the wrong times).

Can I set timeout threshold on subrequests?

Yes, you can, but not directly via an option or parameter on the subrequest calls likengx.location.capture andecho_subrequest.Rather, you should specify the timeout configurations in the location targeted by your subrequest. For example,

Lua C Api File Descriptor Error

Here you specify all the timeout thresholds provided by the ngx_proxymodule in the (internal) location (= /sub) accessed by your subrequest.

Lua C Api File Descriptor Error 0

Can I access remote URLs via ngx.location.capture or alike?

Yes, but not directly. The subrequest API targets nginx's 'locations'. So you need a dedicatedlocation (be it 'internal' or not) and configure the standardngx_proxy module there.

Alternatively, you may consider using one of the lua-resty-http* libraries contributedby the community. To name a few:

  • Brian Akins' lua-resty-http-simple
  • James Hurst's lua-resty-http

This FAQ document is hosted on GitHub and periodically updated to the site:

You can edit the file in the repository above and create pull requests so that I can incorporate your patches.